General Interview Questions - Endocrine system

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1. Hormones are chemical messengers, produced by gland (exocrine and endocrine) cells.  Hormones can alter the metabolism of target cells .
2. For a hormone to alter a cell's function, that cell must have (express) receptors for the hormone.  Hormone receptors are proteins .
3. Every cell has a subset of hormone receptors, and every cell responds to a number of different hormones .
4. Hormones alter cell function by altering the activity of a specific sets of cellular enzymes.  Hormones act through a number of different mechanisms.   They can regulate protein activity or gene expression, or both .
5. Hormones play major roles in sexual reproduction, energy metabolism, water and electrolyte balance, growth and development, and stress response and immune function .
6. Hormones generally reach their target cells by transport in the blood and thus affect cells throughout the body .
7. The storage and utilization of energy substrates  – glucose, fatty acids, and amino acids – are controlled by hormones.  Storage of energy substrates is controlled by insulin; by its actions promoting glucose storage, insulin is the primary regulator of blood glucose concentration.  Utilization of energy is  controlled by glucagons, epinephrine, cortisol and growth hormone .
8. Reproductive functions – generation of gametes (eggs and sperm) and the production of the sex hormones (testosterone and estrogen) – is controlled by hormonal feedback between the hypothalamus (Define?), the anterior pituitary, and the gonads (ovaries and testes) .
9. Na+ and K+ balance is regulated by the rennin-angiotensin II-aldosterone system acting on the kidneys .
10. Body fluid osmolarity is regulated by antidiuretic hormone, related from the posterior pituitary, acting to control water readsorption by the kidneys .  
11. Reproductive behavior is generated by the interaction of the nervous system (CNS, ANS and hypothalamus) and the endocrine system . 
12. Ca2+ balance is regulated by parathyroid hormone and calcitonin .   
13. Gametes (sperm and eggs are haploid cells produced in the gonads (testes and ovaries, respectively) under the control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis .

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